In Spanish law, three systems of liability for the acts of others coexist with certain difficulty.
One, administrative, for damages caused by civil servants and public employees (sections 145
and 146 of Ley 30/1992, de 26 de Noviembre, de Régimen Jurídico de las Administraciones
Públicas y del Procedimiento Administrativo Común); another, civil, for damages caused by
individuals to other individuals (Spanish Civil Code of 1889 (CC), most recently modified in
1991); and a third one – also civil – but applied by the criminal courts, for damages caused by
facts described as crimes or misdemeanors by the Spanish Criminal Code of 1995 and other
criminal laws (section 120 Criminal Code (Cr. C)).

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Pablo Salvador Coderch, Carlos Gómez Ligüerre, Juan Antonio Ruiz García, José Piñeiro Salguero, Antoni Rubí Puig, «Vicarious Liability and Liability for the Actions of Others I. », InDret 2.02